Explanation of terms commonly used in English and Chinese earthquakes

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Earthquake in the quake-hit area stricken area—A region where people’s lives and property have been damaged and where economic construction has been damaged after the earthquake.

Extreme earthquake disaster area - the area most directly damaged by earthquake disasters, excluding earthquake and geological disaster areas that have no direct impact on social economy.

Number of homeless people killed by earthquake - The number of people who evacuated in the country because they lost their home.

Housing damage ratio than damage ratio of buildings - the ratio of damage to buildings of different damage levels and the total construction area.

Loss ratio: The ratio of unit price to replacement unit price required to repair a house or project structure with different levels of damage.

Continuing earthquake loss assessment loss assessment of consequent earthquake - Assessment of damage caused by damage caused by subsequent earthquakes or strong aftershocks in the same region.

Safety assessment in the post-earthquake field - in the period of emergency after a strong earthquake, by examining the earthquake damage of the earthquake-damaged building and the earthquake resistance of the original building, the safety of the earthquake under the expected earthquake is identified. And assessment.

Expected earthquake effect—Earthquake analysis is used to estimate the impact of an earthquake that may be affected by a shocked building. It includes: a) earthquake impacts that have less impact than previous earthquakes, abbreviated as minor earthquakes; b) earthquake impacts that have an impact strength that is roughly equal to or greater than that of existing earthquakes, referred to as the effect of large earthquakes.

Safety building: A building that is safe for use in earthquakes where the earthquake is expected to occur.

Temporarily unresidential building is not used temporarily. - Earthquake-resisting buildings may occur in earthquakes that may endanger life and/or cause major damage to property. They cannot be used safely, or the earthquake-resistance and safety of buildings subjected to earthquakes Earthquake site difficult to assess the building.

Earthquake damage - After the occurrence of a strong earthquake, the collective name for earthquake damage and damage to buildings is one of the main criteria for building safety assessment.

Seismic intensity: The intensity of the ground vibration caused by an earthquake and its influence.

Damage degree of building - The degree of damage to the house during an earthquake.

Damage Index - The degree of damage to the house is represented by numbers, usually indicated by "1.00" and collapsed by "0", and intact by "0". Several earthquake damage grades are divided in the middle according to need, with a value between 0 and 1.00. Appropriate numbers to indicate.

Average damage index mean damage index - The average of the earthquake damage index of all buildings within a group of buildings or within a certain area, that is, the ratio of the ratio of buildings damaged by earthquakes at all levels to the corresponding earthquake damage index. with.

Isoseismal contour: The connection between the demolition of a building under the influence of the same earthquake and the influence of the same degree on the ground. It is a representation of the earthquake-affected field.

Meizoseismal area - the area of ​​the most damaged or most affected by an earthquake.

Macroscopic epicenter: macroscopic epicenter—the geometric center of an earthquake area.

Intensity anomaly area - An area of ​​abnormal intensity that is less than or equal to the intensity of the area in the same intensity zone (generally less than 30%).

Seismic Macroscopic Anomaly: Anomalies associated with earthquakes, meteorological phenomena, and natural anomalies such as underground fluid anomalies, abnormal animal and plant habits, climate anomalies, and geomorphic anomalies.

Subsurface fluid anomaly - abnormal changes in physical and chemical dynamics of underground fluids (liquids or gases) in boreholes, civil wells, springs, oil and gas wells, etc.

Abnormal animal and plant habits animal and plant behavior anomaly - animals, plants, an abnormal behavior, habits phenomenon.

Climatic anomaly - A macro abnormality of the climate that people directly observe or feel.

The phenomenon of natural phenomena such as sound, light, electricity, gas, fire, magnetism and other natural strange phenomena observed by people.

Seismogenic structure: A geological structure that can produce earthquakes of a certain magnitude and have a well-defined geometry and material composition. According to the kinematic characteristics or source mechanics properties of the seismogenic structure, it can be divided into normal faults, reverse faults, strike-slip faults and blind faults-folds.

Earthquake surface rupture zone Earthquake surface rupture zone - The trace of the earthquake source fault displacement left on the surface during earthquakes. It consists of a series of secondary faults, seismic bulges, structural fractures, and seismic trenches.

Sand liquefaction sand 1 iquefaction - under the effect of ground motion, the pore water pressure of saturated sand increases, and its shear strength or resistance to shear deformation is reduced or completely lost.

Earthquake fault - A fault formed by a rupture or shift during an earthquake. These faults are the reflections of the pre-existing faults again sticking or slipping, or they are formed by earthquakes under the influence of a certain regional stress field. Newborn fault.

Earthquake-caused direct loss - the casualties caused by earthquake disasters, the economic damage caused by earthquakes, and the cost of disaster relief investment.

Earthquake-caused direct economic loss: Economic losses caused by physical damage caused by earthquakes and earthquakes, geological disasters, and secondary disasters caused by the destruction of houses and other engineering structures, facilities, equipment, and articles.

Replacement cost: Based on the current price, repair the destroyed houses and other engineering structures, facilities, equipment, and articles, and recover the cost of the same scale and standards before the earthquake.

Cost for earthquake disaster relief - The cost of earthquake relief investment, including labor, materials, transportation, medical drugs, disinfection and epidemic prevention, burial, rubbish clearance and temporary relocation of personnel and other expenses.

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