1, external expansion is limited. Peripheral traffic jams, firefighting aisles are occupied, and glass curtain walls are easily broken. The climbing work surface is affected by high-altitude racks, temporary parking, etc., which prevents external attack and extinguishing and ascending.
2, easy to form three-dimensional combustion. Buildings have large volumes, many combustibles, large fire loads, and good convection conditions. Fires can easily spread from the atrium, vertical tube wells, expansion joints, etc., to the upper layer to form three-dimensional combustion.
3, search and rescue mission is arduous. There are many types of combustibles, which are crowded with people. The combustion produces toxic fumes and causes a large number of people to trample, jam, and poison.
4, internal attack is difficult. The internal separation is complicated, the channels criss-cross, the visibility after the smoke is low, there are many obstacles such as internal shelves and counters, and it is difficult and risky for personnel to enter the internal operations.
5, natural exhaust smoke is not smooth. The top of the mall lacks natural smoke openings. The surrounding windows are mostly obscured by billboards, posters, and banners. The internal mechanical smoke exhaust facilities automatically stop at more than 280Â°C. A lot of high-temperature smoke is difficult to drain, which affects the safety of the structure and is not conducive to the comprehensive and in-depth development of fire fighting and rescue.
1. Reasonably formulate plans for the formation of combat forces, strengthen the deployment of the first power, and dispatch more points. If special occasions or human factors cause fires, sufficient strength should be mobilized to the rescue at one time.
2. The types of vehicle mobilization mainly include heavy duty water tank (foam) fire fighting vehicles, high-lift fire fighting vehicles, smoke-exiting fire-fighting vehicles, arm-breaker vehicles, fire-fighting rescue vehicles, lighting fire engines, and inflatable vehicles.
3. According to the needs of the site, mobilize the emergency forces such as public security, water supply, power supply, gas supply, medical rescue, and municipal administration, as well as the experts of large-scale construction machinery and building structures to cooperate with the site.
Decision on the way
1. Contact the command center and the police on the way to understand the following:
( 1 ) The address of the police and the surrounding water and road conditions;
( 2 ) Fire site, burning material, spread of smoke and fire area;
( 3 ) Evacuation and trapped persons;
( 4 ) The dispatch of reinforcements and the mobilization of social emergency response units.
2. Observe the following when approaching a fire:
( 1 ) Wind direction and wind conditions;
( 2 ) Fire and smoke conditions in a fire building and adjacent buildings;
( 3 ) The personnel call for help in the window or on the roof.
3, access to familiar records, fire-fighting and rescue plans or mobile terminal equipment.
4, comprehensive fire information, pre-judgment of the scale of the fire, depending on the circumstances to deploy reinforcements.
5. On the way out, the commander of the squadron shall dispatch the vehicles to the squadron, inform the commander of the reinforcement squadron, and combine the actual pre-deployment of the vehicle's parking position with the preliminary operational division of labor, prompting attention to the handling action.
6. Provide the person-in-charge of the unit with initial disposal opinions (organizing evacuation of personnel, cleaning of vehicles and obstacles on the surrounding roads), and preparing fire floor plans and site plans.
1. After the squadron in the area arrives at the scene, according to the fire situation and building characteristics, the offensive position and the fortification position can be reasonably determined, the vehicles can be ordered in an orderly manner, and the channel and the climbing operation site can be reserved for the reinforcement squadron and special vehicles.
2. The vehicle should be parked at a safe distance from the building and must not be parked directly under glass curtain walls or large billboards.
3. According to the preplan, arrange the water trucks to stop near the fire water source and the pump adapter and prepare for pressurized water supply.
4. The lifting of high fire trucks should consider the safety of the work surface and the influence of obstacles in the air.
5. Reasonably demarcate the vehicle assembly area and reserve parking positions for other reinforcement vehicles and linkage unit vehicles.
1. According to the fire extinguishing needs and the actual situation on the site, demarcate the warning area and coordinate with the police to implement the fire field alert to ensure the smoothness of the surrounding roads and rescue operations.
2. It is necessary to prevent merchants and customers from arbitrarily entering the fire scene to save human lives and avoid causing greater casualties.
3, to evacuation of rescued materials, to choose not to affect the location of the rescue centralized, and coordinate the police for care.
4. For those sites where combustion is fierce and the disaster situation may be further expanded, it is necessary to strengthen the pre-judgment and expand the area of â€‹â€‹the warning area in advance so as to facilitate the deployment of large-armed regiments.
1 , internal and external reconnaissance:
( 1 ) The location of fire, the spread of fire, and the adjoining construction;
( 2 ) The number, location, call for help, and the threat of fireworks from trapped persons;
( 3 ) The evacuation and offensive channels and the ground are affected by the pyrotechnic effect;
( 4 ) firefighting water supply and surrounding conditions of the building;
( 5 ) Working conditions of lift cars and smoke exhaust vehicles;
( 6 ) Dangers such as flashover, collapse, external fall, etc.
( 7 ) The internal fire-fighting facilities are in good condition and have been operated, in particular, the fire-rated partitions of the fire-protected partitions and the shutters in the area of â€‹â€‹the patio;
( 8 ) Store floor functions and product storage.
2 , ask the insider:
( 1 ) The location of the fire, the burning material, the size of the fire, and the smoke situation;
( 2 ) The inside personnel were trapped and evacuated stairs and fire lifts;
( 3 ) Is the internal power supply cut off;
( 4 ) whether there are dangerous chemicals and flammable and explosive materials;
( 5 ) Indoor fire hydrant location;
( 6 ) The internal reconstruction and expansion of the building.
3 , using fire control room for reconnaissance:
( 1 ) Fire area (fire area, burning area, spread trend) displayed by the alarm device;
( 2 ) The situation of video surveillance images in relevant areas of the building (splashing of fireworks and evacuation of people);
( 3 ) Operation of fire-fighting linkage equipment (emergency broadcast, automatic fire extinguishing facilities, fire shutters, anti-draining system, fire pump start-up);
( 4 ) View the plan and level of the fire building.
(II) On-site judgment
1. Determine the number of search and rescue teams and search and rescue routes based on the location, number, and evacuation corridors of trapped persons.
2. Determine the location of the fighting vehicle according to the fire water source and the surrounding conditions of the building.
3. According to the outward spread of fireworks at the scene, determine the location of the fire and the size of the fire, and determine the fire line and tactical measures.
( 1 ) The glass curtain wall is broken and a large amount of smoke is escaping. The fire may be in a stage of development or fierce. The outside of the building shall be selected as the starting point of the attack to control the fire.
( 2 ) There are open flames or heavy smoke on the billboards on the external wall. If it is determined that the fire is spreading, the billboards should be immediately dismantled, the way of spreading should be cut off, or the exhaust fumes, offensives, and the opening of external lifesaving passages should be carried out;
( 3 ) When the building presents a three-dimensional combustion situation, when the initial battle strength is difficult to fully control the fire, it shall concentrate on protecting adjacent buildings, adjacent floors or adjacent fire prevention zones that are seriously threatened by fire, and immediately apply for the dispatch of reinforcements to the scene.
Organization and command
1. Commanders in front of the squadron in the area should deploy fire-fighting and rescue operations at the main offensive port, account for safety precautions, and coordinate the fire field command; the rear commander should be responsible for the fire field water supply, lift car launch, external rescue, and equipment transportation outside the building. And collateral reinforcements.
2. When the reinforcement squadron commander moves on the way, he should take the initiative to get in touch with the squadron commander of the area to understand the basic situation and do a good job in the task. After arriving at the scene, they reported to the highest commander on the spot and received the combat mission.
3. Immediately after the arrival of the deputy commander of the detachment, the headquarters of the fire site shall be established, and the commanders of the large and squadrons of the area shall transfer the commanding authority. The detachment commander formulates the operational plan based on the site conditions, demarcates the operational zoning, and deploys combat tasks.
4. The commander who is familiar with the situation should be responsible for the command of rescue operations, water supply, demolition, and smoke exhaustion and other important operational links.
5. After the public security, water supply, power supply, gas supply, medical, and other powers arrive on the scene, the Supreme Commander shall, based on the actual situation, put forward specific requirements for cooperation and disposal.
1. Commanders and combatants should first consider the use of fixed fire-fighting facilities in buildings during firefighting and rescue operations.
( 1 ) Start the fire pump, according to the flow of the pump, rational use of indoor fire hydrant water gun;
( 2 ) Distinguish the partition and function of the water pump adapter, and prepare the water supply for the indoor fire hydrant or spray system;
( 3 ) Using the emergency broadcasting system to guide trapped people to choose the correct evacuation route to ensure orderly evacuation;
( 4 ) Determine the location of the fire point according to the fire automatic/manual alarm system information fed back by the fire control room;
( 5 ) During the initial stage of the fire, ensure that the fire doors and the central air-conditioning system on the floor above the fire floor and the fire floor are closed, and start the positive pressure air supply system or the smoke exhaust system. When the temperature reaches 280Â°C, the system fails.
2. According to different site conditions, fire sprinkler systems, fire lifts, evacuation stairwells, fire doors, fire shutters, smoke barriers and other fire and smoke partitions, emergency lighting systems, emergency generators, and exit instructions can be used. brand.
1. The exterior entrance or floor of the building should be selected as the starting point for the attack.
2. Internally, fire elevators should be preferred as the offensive route. No fire elevators should choose the offensive channel in the order of smoke prevention stairs, enclosed stairs, and outdoor stairs.
3. The outside should use the lift trucks, fire-fighting ladders and adjacent buildings to open offensive channels.
4. It is strictly forbidden to use a fire elevator to go directly to the fire floor or pass through the fire floor. The weight of personnel and equipment must not exceed the load limit of the elevator.
5. When there are multiple stairs, different stairs shall be used to carry out the fire extinguishing attack and evacuation to save people and prevent mutual interference.
6. When the front room and the walkway are filled with smoke, after the person enters or exits the stairwell, the fire door shall be closed to prevent the smoke from flowing into the stairwell and affecting the evacuation of people.
1. Open all entrances and exits to all evacuees on the principle of layered and partitioned evacuation.
2. Initiate an emergency broadcast system to stabilize the mood of trapped people and guide people to evacuation.
3. The rescue team can use evacuation elevators or evacuation stairs to evacuate and search for trapped people.
4, external use of high fire trucks, fire ladders and other rescue equipment for climbing equipment. When rescued, the rescued person should take measures such as stabilizing emotions, warnings about window safety, and using rope protection.
5. The rescue group shall be no less than 2 persons, carry life-saving and rescue equipment, and focus on searching the shelves, cabinets (cabinet), toilets, corners, behind the door and other parts.
6. For those stranded persons who have lost their ability to move, take measures such as back, lift, and hold, and provide security.
7. Paste obvious marks on searched rescue rooms or areas to prevent duplicate search and rescue.
8. The firefighters cooperated with the unit staff and public security to conduct evacuation of personnel inside the unit and diversion of personnel around the unit.
9. The evacuation and search and rescue personnel should be counted, registered one by one, and handed over to the medical staff.
1. The fixed smoke exhaust facilities should be started in time to improve the visibility of the fire.
2. If there is an outside window, the fire floor and its upper window should be opened for natural exhaust. When the pyrotechnics may be spread to the upper area through the smoke outlet, it is necessary to preset the water gun to cut off the external propagation route of the pyrotechnic, but it is not allowed to shoot water into the exhaust port.
3. Large-scale construction machinery shall be used to dismantle the external wall billboards and glass curtain walls to implement smoke extraction. Before the demolition, a warning zone shall be set to prevent falling objects from hurting people.
4. Manual smoke extraction using flowering or spray jets, rational use of mobile smoke extraction facilities for smoke extraction. Particular attention should be paid to positive tactical applications of positive-ventilation smoke evacuators such as anti-smoke and smoke blocking in fires. Positive pressure smoke evacuation machines should be installed in the stairwells or front chambers during intrusion (fire extinguishing and evacuation). The positive pressure inside the fire layer will prevent the smoke from spreading to the stairwell and cover the attacking position. The upper layer of the fire should be blown under the pressure of the air in the lower stairwell window at the slow bench to expel the smoke in the stairwell.
1. Put down fire shutters in time, attack with fireproof partitions as a unit, and set fire guns on the side of fire shutters threatened by fire to reduce the risk of fire spreading.
2. Focus on deploying fire-fighting forces at the fire level, establishing offensive positions, and storming close combat to control the fire to a certain extent.
3. Deploy the interception force on the upper layer of the fire, focusing on the wall of the external wall that is rolling upwards, as well as the vertical spread of fire, such as stairways and pipe shafts.
4. Water rifle positions are placed on the lower and upper floors of the fire pit to prevent the smoke from rising from the pipe well to the top floor, causing the top-level commodity to burn and the falling combustion to cause the underlying commodity to burn.
5. Rationally use high lift trucks, truck-mounted guns, and moving water guns to shoot water, and fight the fire from the outside to avoid changes in the fire and smoke of the Ministry of Construction due to external jets, and to threaten the safety of attackers. The fortification of the key parts of the adjacent buildings that may be ignited by flying fire and intense radiant heat.
6, a large number of commodities on fire, burning fierce, to use large-caliber water guns, moving water guns, etc. to suppress or pinch the fire as far as possible; fire is in the decline stage, to use flowering or spray jet as much as possible to reduce the flow of water on the dipping of goods, to the maximum Reduce fire losses and hazards.
7. When there is a lot of presence, the fire control and evacuation materials work must be carried out simultaneously.
8. In the confined space, high temperatures have already formed, and a flash fire may occur. Before entering, it is necessary to fully cool down through holes.
9 , to pay close attention to the situation of the fire shutter rolling in the patio area, use the top floor indoor fire hydrant to set the water gun position to cool the roller blind and set aside; send personnel to reconnaissance the situation of the underlying patio, use the underlying indoor fire hydrant for defense, prevent flying fire ignited goods, cause fire spread.
Fire water supply
1. Start the fire pump in the building and supply water to the standpipe. If necessary, use a fire truck to fill the standpipe through the pump adapter.
2. It is preferred to use large-tonnage fire trucks and large-diameter water hoses, and lay them on a straight line to avoid crossover and reduce pressure loss.
3, according to the diameter and form of the pipe network to estimate the number of fire engines stopped at the fire hydrant, to avoid water supply interruption. Give priority to the use of fire pool sinks in neighboring units.
4. For fire sites with long time-saving and heavy water consumption, the municipal water supply department shall be notified in a timely manner to pressurize the pipe network, and municipal water trucks and sprinklers shall be mobilized according to the circumstances.
5. Water supply trunks should be laid on the side of the roadside to avoid passing through the bottom of the vehicle. Crossing the roads must be protected by water bridges to keep the road open. Should make full use of the overpasses or underground passages above the street to reduce the number of waterways across the road.
6. The squadrons that have entered the war system for self-contained systems should be provided with their own water supply system. They should try to occupy the water within a range of 500 meters in the direction of the combat zone , and use water sources with higher flow rates as a priority. The detachment's reinforcement of the water supply formation should occupy a water source 500 meters away, depending on the situation, laying the water supply main line to ensure the main battlefield in front.
1. Before the internal attack, the security officer should do a good job in safety registration, carefully inspect the personal protective equipment such as air breathing apparatus, headlights, callers, safety ropes, and radios, and register basic information such as the time of entry and exit of internal attackers. Keep in touch with in-flight personnel, prompt entry time or distance to evacuation.
2. When entering dense smoke areas, in-house attackers should walk along low-altitude lines such as life-saving lighting lines, ropes, hoses, or walls, and move in and out of the same direction to prevent disorientation. Before entering the interior, use water guns to shoot from top to bottom to prevent falling objects from hurting people. Under normal circumstances, the internal attack combat team should set a safety guide line when entering the floor from the stairwell.
3. Before entering the interior, the personnel should notify the relevant units to turn off the power supply and air supply, and to enter the cosmetics and restaurant areas to carry out firefighting and rescue. Attention should be paid to the prevention of sudden explosion damage caused by flammable and explosive materials.
4. When searching for rescue personnel, it is necessary to strengthen the search for key areas such as toilets, fitting rooms, elevators, doors and windows, and passages to prevent the loss of personnel.
5, to strengthen the fire smoke exhaust heat, to prevent damage to the building structure caused by high temperatures, to set up more observation points on the outside, clear retreat signals and release methods, in particular, to strengthen the non-load-bearing walls, parapets and hanging components for shopping malls and outbuildings Observations to prevent collapse, fall and hurt people.
6. If large-scale mechanical equipment is used during the recovery stage, it is necessary to prevent impaired load-bearing columns and walls. Minimize the number of internally recruited people and strengthen safety and discipline education.
The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.
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