Water and fertilizer coupling: greatly improve water and fertilizer utilization

In the 1960s, developed countries began to promote the application of fertigation techniques. The combination of irrigation and fertilization is carried out, and a small amount of irrigation and fertilization are carried out according to the law of crop water requirement and fertilizer, so as to maximize water, fertilizer utilization rate and production efficiency. In the past two years, this technology has been called “water and fertilizer integration” in China. We call it the narrow water and fertilizer integration or the narrow water and fertilizer coupling. In order to adapt to the rapid development of water-saving agriculture and promote the deepening of water and fertilizer management technology, we now propose the concept of water and fertilizer integration in generalized water and fertilizer, which refers to the comprehensive regulation and integrated management of farmland water and nutrients, Promote fertilizer with water, comprehensively improve the efficiency of water and fertilizer use, and promote agricultural production and efficiency. The water here includes both precipitation and irrigation water, as well as soil water, surface water and groundwater. Water management should consider both the threat of water shortage and the impact of waterlogging. The coupling of water and fertilizer is to make the optimal combination of water and fertilizer supply to crops and meet the production needs. It is not only suitable for irrigation areas, but also for dry farming areas and paddy fields. It has a broad development space in the country.

Generalized water and fertilizer integration - practice of water and fertilizer coupling

In recent years, we have demonstrated and promoted water-saving agricultural technologies such as full-film cover rainwater conservation, fertigation, drip irrigation under the film, and simmering irrigation in many areas of the country to achieve integrated management of water and nutrients, and the benefits of increased production, income and resource conservation are very high. Significantly, it has made useful exploration and practice for the integration of water and fertilizer in the generalized water and fertilizer integration.

The first is the dry farming area. In the dry farming areas of Gansu, Shaanxi, Ningxia and Qinghai, large-area demonstration and promotion of full-film cover rainwater conservation technology, supporting long-acting fertilizer, slow-release fertilizer and organic fertilizer, etc., under 300 mm precipitation conditions, the yield per mu reached More than 600 kilograms, nearly 50% higher than semi-membrane cover and conventional fertilizer. Full-film covering and protecting technology fully accumulates precipitation, reduces evaporation loss, and the utilization rate of precipitation is over 90%; long-acting fertilizer and slow-release fertilizer release, and the slow release of nutrients to ensure the demand of the whole growth period of the crop, is the practice of water and nutrients Model of change.

The second is the fine irrigation area. In the micro-irrigation fruit trees, vegetables and potato, corn, cotton and other field crops, the demonstration and application of irrigation and fertilization technology will be carried out to realize the integrated application of water and fertilizer. For example, in the west of Jilin, western Heilongjiang, eastern Inner Mongolia and other places to promote the drip irrigation technology under the corn film, the per mu yield increased from 500 kg to 800 kg, increasing production by 60%. Implemented on potatoes in Inner Mongolia, Gansu and other places, the average yield per mu can reach more than 3,000 kg, which is 1000 kg more than the conventional irrigated land, increasing production by 50%. In Shandong tomato, the same fertilization amount can reach 7500 kg per mu, which is more than 2,000 kg more than that of traditional furrow irrigation. The utilization rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are 59.8%, 21.4% and 69.4%, respectively, and increase by 21.9, 7.8 and 25.4 percentage points.

The third is irrigated land. In winter wheat in the North China Plain, farmers generally have to plant water for 4 to 5 times, and the total irrigation capacity is 300-400 square meters/mu. Not only is water waste serious, but fertilizer is also lost with water, causing huge waste. Using sputum irrigation and fertilization according to sputum, optimize irrigation system, apply long-acting fertilizer, realize integration of water and fertilizer, change drinking water to ostomy water, reduce the number of irrigation to 2~3 times, yield more than 500 kg per mu, save water Above 120 square meters, the nitrogen is 20%.

The fourth is rice fields. In Sichuan, Guangxi and other places on rice using film-saving water-saving technology, supporting the application of long-acting fertilizer, the implementation of water and fertilizer integration, the average yield per mu more than 700 kg, than the conventional irrigation and fertilization increased production of more than 100 kg; irrigation by 2 to 3 reductions It is 1~2 times; the fertilizer is reduced from 17kg to 12kg (pure nutrient); the number of labor is reduced from 18 to 12.

Water and fertilizer coupling is the strategic direction to improve water and fertilizer use efficiency

China uses 26% of the world's water resources, 9% of cultivated land, and 30% of chemical fertilizers to produce 26% of agricultural products. The amount of fertilizer is huge, and water shortage is more severe than lack of land. China's annual irrigation water consumption is about 360 billion cubic meters, with a gap of more than 30 billion square meters. The irrigation water production efficiency is 1 kilogram per square, which is only about half of the developed countries such as the United States and Israel. The annual consumption of chemical fertilizers in China exceeds 54 million tons. The world's first, the average utilization rate is only about 30%, which is lower than the developed countries by more than 20 percentage points. This kind of high-consumption and inefficient production mode has brought about a series of problems such as resource waste, ecological degradation and environmental pollution, which has become a bottleneck restricting the sustainable development of China's agriculture.

With the continuous development of China's economy and society, the reduction trend of cultivated land area is irreversible, and the constraints of water and fertilizer resources on agricultural development will become more prominent. To develop high-yield, high-quality, high-efficiency, safe, ecological agriculture and achieve sustainable development, we must change the development mode, take the path of efficient use of resources, comprehensively establish the concept of water and fertilizer coupling, scientific management, and greatly improve the utilization rate of water and fertilizer, and must further innovate the theory. Promote the integration of water and fertilizer from narrow to broad, from local to national, and make “water and fertilizer coupling” a strategic measure to improve resource utilization efficiency and become “No. 1 Technology” for building “resource-saving and environment-friendly” agriculture.

Water and fertilizer coupling technology promotion work focus

First, in the dry farming area, the development of dryland conservation and rainwater harvesting technology as the core, through the deep pine tillage to build soil reservoirs to leave the sky water, film mulch and other covering to cover the soil, the application of drought-resistant agents, water retention agents increased Drought resistance and resilience, build water collection ponds, actively develop rainwater replenishment, promote drought-resistant seedlings, use long-acting fertilizers, slow-release fertilizers, organic fertilizers to improve nutrient supply, significantly increase yields, and increase natural precipitation. The goal of production efficiency.

The second is to develop a reasonable irrigation and fertilization system in the facility agriculture, orchard and irrigation field of potato, cotton, corn and other field crops suitable for micro-irrigation, focusing on high-efficiency economic horticultural crops, making full use of the drip irrigation technology and the application of water-soluble fertilizer. To achieve scientific and precise use of water and fertilizer resources.

Third, in the general irrigated agricultural areas, vigorously promote the measurement of irrigating and arable fertilization, fertilizer enterprises to improve the irrigation system and fertilizer nutrient form ratio, improve the farmers' scientific water use fertilization awareness, and improve the efficiency of water and fertilizer production.

The fourth is to promote wet irrigation, film and water retention, alternate irrigation, furrow irrigation and other technologies in the paddy field planting area, adjust fertilizer nutrient forms, regulate farmland water cycle, promote water and fertilizer coupling, improve fertilizer utilization, and reduce environmental pollution.

Peasant Daily (National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center Gao Xiangzhao Du Sen Wu Yong Zhong Yonghong)
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